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The history of the formation of the political and economic elite in the Sverdlovsk region

Eduard Ergartovich Rossel

Short biography

Was born in 1937. For several years he lived without parental care due to the repression of his father. He studied at school in the Komi Republic.

He worked in construction specialties, first in the Komi Republic, and then (1963-1983) in Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk Region. At this time in Nizhny Tagil, Yuri Petrov worked in leading positions in the organs of the CPSU, who would later become Rossel's patron.

Since 1983, he worked in executive positions in the Glavsreduralstroy trust, the largest construction organization in the Sverdlovsk region.

During perestroika in the second half of the 1990s, there was a decentralization of economic powers in the USSR. However, the decentralization of powers did not lead to significant liberalization of the economy - the diktat of the union ministries replaced the diktat of regional industrial associations that had a monopoly character. Such associations included TCO Sreduralstroy (formerly the Glavsreduralstroy trust), which was headed by Eduard Rossel.

In 1989 , the Sreduralstroy trust (formerly Glavsreduralstroy) and the Swiss firm Sitko AG established the InterUral joint venture. Through it, iron, rare metals, petroleum products and almost 90% of the copper produced in 1990-1991 1991 in the Sverdlovsk region were exported abroad. Boris Yeltsin's son-in-law (Leonid Dyachenko), the son of Yuri Petrov and the daughter of Eduard Rossel (who at that time headed the Sreduralstroy trust) worked at the enterprise.

In 1990, he heads the authorities of the Sverdlovsk region, becoming the chairman of the regional executive committee and regional council with the support of Yuri Petrov.

In 1991, President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin appointed Rossel as head of the administration of the Sverdlovsk region.

In 1993, Rossel went into conflict with the country's leadership, trying to increase the powers of the region, which brings him popularity among the inhabitants of the region. By this time, Rossel's patron, Yuri Petrov, had already lost its former influence on Boris Yeltsin.

By decree of the President of the Russian Federation, Rossel resigns from the post of head of the administration of the Sverdlovsk region. Deputy Mayor of Yekaterinburg Alexei Strakhov is appointed the new head of the regional administration, after which a conflict begins between Rossel and the mayor of Yekaterinburg Arkady Chernetsky.

Among the closest associates of Rossel at this moment: Sergei Vozdvizhensky, Veniamin Golubitsky, Anatoly Gaida. During this difficult period, Rossel is financially sup-ported by his friend, businessman Saul Lukach.

In 1993, Golubitsky and Gaida created an electoral association "Transformation of the Urals" under Rossel, in which in 1994 Rossel was elected a deputy of the Regional Duma and became its chairman. According to unconfirmed reports, the leaders of the Sverdlovsk organized criminal groups took part in the financing of the “Transformation of the Urals” association: first the organized criminal group “Center” (Sergei Makarikhin), and then the organized criminal group “Uralmash”.

In 1995 Rossel was elected Governor of the Sverdlovsk Region.

Throughout his term as governor, Rossel remains in conflict with the mayor of Yekaterinburg, Arkady Chernetsky, partly because of a personal conflict, partly because of the objective confrontation over administrative powers and economic resources between different levels of government.

Rossel is re-elected for governor in 1999 and 2003.

Rossel pursues a policy of reaching a compromise with the largest FIGs operating in the Sverdlovsk Region (Renova, Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company, Pipe Metallurgical Company, Evraz Group), appointing lobbyists of these companies to leading positions in the regional government. In this case, preference is given to the Renova company of Viktor Vekselberg.

In 2005, after the introduction of a law on appointing governors to “curb regional freelancers” as part of strengthening the centralization of the country, Rossel posed a question of confidence to Russian President Vladimir Putin, expressing his readiness to resign if the head of state decides. Putin, in turn, offers the regional legislature to approve Rossel as governor for a new term, despite the fact that Rossel is perceived as one of the "regional barons" who do not want to unquestioningly fit into the vertical of power.

In 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev chooses Alexander Misharin for the post of governor of the Sverdlovsk region, as a result of which Rossel resigns from the post of governor. Misharin appoints Rossel as a member of the Federation Council.

In June 2012, Rossel was approved as a member of the Federation Council by the new governor of the Sverdlovsk Region, Evgeny Kuyvashev.

Detailed biography

Born on October 8, 1937 in the village. Bor Bor district of the Gorky region.

German by nationality. Until the age of 11, he spoke German and did not know Russian well. His father, a furniture artel joiner Ergart Yuliusovich, who was born in the Kiev region and lived in the village of Bor, Gorky region, was shot in 1938 by the verdict of the NKVD Commission and the Prosecutor's Office (Article 58-6 "Espionage" and 58-11 "All kinds of organizational activities aimed to the preparation or commission of counter-revolutionary crimes"). A little earlier, his grandfather may have been repressed.

According to Rossel, his mother was exiled to the Komi Republic, while Rossel himself wandered. After the expiration of his term of exile, his mother found him at the age of 11 in the Kirov region, after which he entered a school in the Komi Republic.

Member of the Komsomol in 1951-1966.

Graduated from the Sverdlovsk Mining Institute with a degree in construction of mining enterprises in 1962, as well as postgraduate studies at the Ural Polytechnic Institute in 1972.

In 1962 he worked for a short time as a junior researcher at the Sverdlovsk Mining Institute. After that, he worked in the Ukhtastroy trust and the reinforced concrete plant of the Komi Republic, where he lived while studying at school.

In 1963-1975 he returned to the Sverdlovsk region, worked in various positions in the "Tagilstroy" trust (Nizhny Tagil). Making a career from foreman to chief engineer of the trust.

In February 1966 he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (candidate since February 1965).

He took courses in the Faculty of Economics of the University of Marxism-Leninism at the Nizhny Tagil City Committee of the CPSU.

He entered postgraduate studies at the Department of Construction Production of the Ural Polytechnic Institute (UPI). In 1972 he defended his thesis for the degree of candidate of technical sciences.

In 1975-1990, he held managerial positions at the Tagiltyazhstroy plant and the Tagilstroy construction and assembly association, then at the Glavsreduralstroy trust (since 1983 - deputy head, since June 1989 - acting head, since January 1990 – head of the trust).

In 1986, being the deputy head of Glavsreduralstroy, Eduard Rossel headed the headquarters of the "main construction of the year in the region" - the construction of coke oven battery No. 9 at the Nizhny Tagil Metallurgical Plant.

Rossel became the head of the Nizhniy Tagil Territorial Production Association of Glavsreduralstroy, created in 1987, which will later be called the first corporation in the Sverdlovsk Region. The high technical equipment of this association with powerful computers was noted, which was a rarity at that time.

In 1988, the practice of creating such territorial-production associations was condemned by the top party leadership. This was explained by the fact that initially it was planned to voluntarily merge independent enterprises, but instead of this, rigidly centralized organizations were created in the localities that recreated the former ministerial heads, not only at the union or republican level, but at the regional level. Nevertheless, in 1989 the Government of the USSR set a course for an increase in the role of associations, state production associations, and concerns in the economy. A stormy process of creating these structures began. In the conditions when the functions of the ministries were changing, the tax system was introduced, when there were still no measures for antimonopoly regulation, in contrast to the ministries, administrative structures were created that monopolized the economy. The creation of such concerns was not a result of the expansion of the rights of enterprises, but as a result of the redistribution of functions within the previous apparatus. The functions previously performed by the ministries were transferred to the created associations and concerns, and even more severe pressure continued at the middle level of government. The new structures received control over the social sphere in their jurisdiction, and took control of the work of law enforcement agencies. Opinions were expressed that the monopolists would influence the elections so strongly that they, and not the Soviets of People's Deputies, would become the source of power.

In the Sverdlovsk region, such structures could be attributed to the territorial construction association "Sreduralstroy" under the USSR Minuralsibstroy, which was previously the Glavsreduralstroy trust under the USSR Ministry of Heavy Industry. In 1989, the duties of the head of the Sreduralstroy TSO were performed by the deputy head of the association Eduard Rossel due to illness and advanced years of the head of the association, Vladimir Isaevich Sabanov. In December 1989, Sabanov died

In 1989 the Soviet-Swiss joint venture "InterUral" was created by the association "Sreduralstroy" and the Italian-Swiss firm "Sitko AG". In the 1990s, information was published that the InterUral JV employed relatives of Boris Yeltsin, his confidant Yuri Petrov and Eduard Rossel.

Member of the Bureau of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU since 17.04.1990. Delegate of the XXVIII Congress of the CPSU and the I (founding) Congress of the Communist Party of the RSFSR.

On April 2, 1990, he was elected chairman of the Sverdlovsk Regional Executive Committee instead of Vladimir Vlasov, who was elected chairman of the Sverdlovsk Regional Council of People's Deputies. The first deputy chairmen of the regional executive committee were Sergei Vozdvizhensky and Valery Trushnikov.

In June 1990, deputies of the Sverdlovsk Regional Council from the Democratic Choice Movement initiated the resignation of the Chairman of the Regional Council, Vladimir Vlasov, who publicly opposed the candidacy of Boris Yeltsin when he was approved as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR in May 1990. By a majority of votes, the deputies of the regional council early terminated the powers of Vlasov as chairman of the council.

In July 1990, the regional Council of People's Deputies received a letter signed by the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin. Referring to information coming from a number of regions and large cities about the contradictions arising between the Soviets and the executive committees, about the duplication of the work of the executive committees by the Soviets, about the planned increase in the apparatus of the presidiums of the Council, the author of the letter expressed the idea of the advisability of implementing “in the order of ex- Periods in the Sverdlovsk region of combining the posts of the chairman of the regional council and the chairman of the executive committee. " This proposal obviously contradicted the principle of separation of powers, the violation of which, in the opinion of the "democrats", led to the omnipotence of the party-bureaucratic apparatus in the decaying USSR, on the wave of the struggle against which Yeltsin became so popular. This also contradicted the slogan "All power to the Soviets!" Thus, a little over a month has passed since Boris Yeltsin became the highest official in the RSFSR, and he began to act contrary to the fundamental principles of his election statements. It should be noted that at the same time, the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR adopted a decision to prohibit combining the posts of chairman of the Council of People's Deputies of any level with leading posts in the CPSU.

The chairman of the Sverdlovsk regional executive committee, Eduard Rossel, said that Yeltsin's letter was born from his submission. Rossel spoke about the powerlessness of the newly formed government, about slippage in solving practical issues. He also expressed complaints against the regional council, which, according to him, tried to take away some structures from the executive committee, to reduce it to the level of the protocol department. Despite fears of a return to authoritarian rule, the regional council members nevertheless agreed with Boris Yeltsin's proposal that one person should head both the regional council of people's deputies and the regional executive committee. The semblance of the principle of separation of powers was preserved by introducing the posts of two deputy chairmen of the Council: one was to be responsible for the work of the Council, and the second - the regional executive committee.

During the elections of the chairman of the regional Council of People's Deputies, the most votes were received by the candidates for the chairman of the regional executive committee Eduard Rossel and the chairman of the Nizhneturinsk city council G.P. Chuprov. But none of the candidates got enough votes to be elected. The decision to elect the chairman of the regional council was postponed.

Meanwhile, the confrontation between the regional council and the regional executive committee continued. For example, the commission on foreign economic activity of the regional council canceled the decision of the regional executive committee, signed by the chairman of the regional executive committee, Eduard Rossel, which ordered that foreign guests of enterprises should be fed for foreign currency in specially equipped places. 70% of this currency was to be transferred to the regional executive committee. Thus, the regional executive committee was looking for ways to obtain currency. In addition, the commission agreed that a self-supporting association for external relations under the regional executive committee (created by combining a number of commercial firms) cannot have, in addition to commercial, legislative and control functions. This was to be the prerogative of the Council. The commission decided to consider the step of the regional executive committee to create a self-supporting association as insufficiently prepared and to propose to Eduard Rossel to cancel this decision within 10 days. Within ten days, Rossel did not cancel his decision and did not answer the commission.

According to the results of a poll among the deputies of the Regional Council, the most authoritative deputies were named: Eduard Rossel, Gennady Burbulis, A. Zaborov, Anatoly Grebenkin, A. Matrosov, Larisa Mishustina, A. Gusev, G. Chuprov, Galina Karelova, Vladimir Gaffner.

Plenipotentiary of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Gennady Burbulis accused the chairman of the Sverdlovsk regional executive committee Eduard Rossel of hypocrisy and "political flirting" with the union government, while the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR insisted on his resignation. Burbulis had in mind Rossel's trip to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Nikolai Ryzhkov with the aim of agreeing on the supply of food to the region. In response to this accusation, Rossel said that he had gone to Moscow on instructions from a session of the regional Council of People's Deputies. Initially, Rossel appealed to the government of the RSFSR, but convinced that it was still too weak and in the stage of formation, he turned to Nikolai Ryzhkov, which, according to Rossel, made it possible to "knock out" the food. In reality, Rossel managed to achieve just another promises from Ryzhkov and formidable phone calls to heads of agricultural regions. Ryzhkov's instructions were never followed.

In November 1990, during a regular vote of deputies of the regional Council of People's Deputies for candidates for the post of chairman of the Council, the chairman of the regional executive committee, Eduard Rossel, ultimately won. The closest rival was the head of the department of the Scientific Research Institute of Automation, the chairman of the control committee of the regional council A. Matrosov.

The question of the possibility of combining the posts of the chairman of the regional Council of People's Deputies and the chairman of the regional executive committee began to be actively discussed again. Rossel said that, in his opinion, the leaders of both the legislative and executive powers in the region should be elected by the population so that they are independent from each other. And the scheme of subordination of the regional executive committee to the Council, when the Council interferes in the work of the executive committee, in Rossel's opinion, is ineffective.

The Regional Council was divided on the issue under discussion in approximately half. On the side of Rossel was the "Consolidation" deputy group, which united the secretaries and members of the regional committee of the CPSU, the first leaders of cities, districts, and large industrial enterprises. According to opposition-minded deputies, Rossel, having become chairman of the regional council, ignored the demands of many deputies to put to a vote the issue of dismissing him from the post of chairman of the executive committee in order to retain both posts, despite the decision of the session not to combine them.

Rossel responded by saying that overcoming crises has always been accompanied in world history by some restriction of democratic freedoms. It is inevitable on the scale of a separate region. It is only important to guarantee the possibilities for deepening democracy in the future.

Eduard Rossel stated that he intends to "fight" with Boris Yeltsin (the leadership of the RSFSR) for the rights of the Sverdlovsk region, just as Yeltsin is "at war" with the union center for the rights of Russia. Since the end of 1989, the Ural Republic movement existed in the region, one of the main activists of which was Anton Bakov. The main goal of the movement was to create a sovereign Ural Union Republic within the RSFSR with the capital in Sverdlovsk, which could include the Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, Kurgan, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Perm regions, as well as Komi, Udmurt and the Bashkir ASSR. Only within the framework of such an independent education, according to the activists of the movement, the economic, social and environmental problems of the region could be solved. This idea was consonant with the proposals made by Boris Yeltsin Yeltsin that the territory of the RSFSR should be divided into several regions not according to national, but according to economic criteria, and these regions should be granted rights similar to those of the union republics.

As chairman of the regional executive committee, Eduard Rossel designated as a significant problem the unwillingness of regional enterprises to take into account the interests of the region. In their activities, the enterprises were guided only by the requests of their ministries. It was proposed, along with the state order, to introduce a territorial order for enterprises, failure to fulfill which would be punishable by penalties.

16 октября 1991 г. Президентом РСФСР Boris Yeltsin Rossel was appointed head of the administration of the Sverdlovsk region.

By the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 10, 1993, he was removed from the post of the head of the administration of the Sverdlovsk region with the wording “for abuse of authority” (in connection with an attempt to proclaim the “Ural Republic”).

November 1993 - July 1994 - President of the Association for Economic Interaction between Regions and Republics of the Urals.

Among the closest associates of Rossel at this moment: Sergei Vozdvizhensky, Veniamin Golubitsky, Anatoly Gaida. During this difficult period, Rossel is financially supported by his friend, businessman Saul Lukach.

He headed the regional electoral association "Transformation of the Urals" (since November 1993), on the basis of which in September 1995 he created and headed the all-Russian movement "Transformation of the Fatherland". The leaders of the Sverdlovsk organized criminal groups took part in the financing of the “Transformation of the Urals” association: first the organized criminal group “Center” (Sergei Makarikhin), and then the organized criminal group “Uralmash”.

December 12, 1993 he was elected to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation.

On April 10, 1994, he was elected a deputy, and on April 28, 1994 - the first chairman of the Sverdlovsk Regional Duma.

On August 20, 1995, he was elected Governor of the Sverdlovsk Region. He took office on August 23, 1995. He was re-elected to this position twice - September 12, 1999 and September 21, 2003.

Throughout his term as governor, Rossel remains in conflict with the mayor of Yekaterinburg, Arkady Chernetsky, partly because of a personal conflict, partly because of the objective confrontation over administrative powers and economic resources between different levels of government.

Since January 1996 - ex-officio member of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. He was a member of the Security and Defense Committee. In December 2001, he resigned as a member of the Federation Council of the Russian Federation in connection with the introduction of a new procedure for its formation.

Rossel pursues a policy of reaching a compromise with the largest FIGs operating in the Sverdlovsk Region (Renova, Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company, Pipe Metallurgical Company, Evraz Group), appointing lobbyists of these companies to leading positions in the regional government. In this case, preference is given to the Renova company of Viktor Vekselberg.

In October 2005, he put before Russian President Vladimir Putin the question of confidence in connection with the entry into force of the law on the appointment of governors (Rossel's term expired in 2007) and on November 17, the president submitted Rossel's candidacy for consideration to the regional legislative assembly. Not long before that, Rossel had joined the United Russia party. Member of the All-Russian political party "United Russia" since October 10, 2004.

On November 21, 2005, the Legislative Assembly of the Sverdlovsk Region by an open roll call vote unanimously approved Eduard Rossel as governor at a joint meeting of both chambers of the Legislative Assembly.

On October 2, 2007, at the VIII Congress of the United Russia party, he was approved as the leader of the United Russia list in regional group 69 (Sverdlovsk region) at the elections to the State Duma of the V convocation.

On November 10, 2009, the President was not proposed for a new term of office as governor. On November 23, E. E. Rossel's powers as governor of the Sverdlovsk region ended.

On December 4, 2009, the new governor of the Sverdlovsk Region, Alexander Misharin, signed a decree appointing Rossel to the Federation Council. On December 10, his candidacy was supported by deputies of the House of Representatives and deputies of the Regional Duma, and on December 16, his powers were confirmed at the 260th sitting of the Federation Council.

Appointed Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the Ural Pharmaceutical Cluster NP, formed on the basis of the Yunona company.

On May 14, 2012, in connection with the resignation of Alexander Misharin, Rossel resigned his senatorial powers.

In June 2012, he was approved by the new Governor of the Sverdlovsk Region, Evgeny Kuyvashev, as a member of the Federation Council.

Date of information update: 2013.