The history of the formation of the political and economic elite in the Sverdlovsk region

Anatoly Alekseevich Speransky

Was born in 1946 in Arkhangelsk.

His father was Alexey Petrovich Speransky.

One of the sources reported that Aleksey Speransky was exiled to Arkhangelsk in the "case of doctors." However, the "Doctors' Plot" was initiated only in the early 1950s, while Aleksey Speransky had already lived in Arkhangelsk in 1946. From Arkhangelsk, the Speranskikh family moved to Karaganda (Kazakh SSR). It should be noted that people accused of "cosmopolitanism" were often exiled to Kazakhstan at that time. Since 1955, Alexey Speransky worked in Moscow. By this time, Joseph Stalin had already died and the fight against "cosmopolitanism" was stopped. Considering these facts, it is possible that Aleksey Speransky, indeed, could be accused (or suspected) of ties with "cosmopolitans", namely, within the framework of the fight against "cosmopolitanism", the "case of pest doctors" was initiated.

It was argued that Anatoly Speransky came from the old Russian church-medical family of the Speransky. Probably, they meant the clan to which the statesman of the 19th century Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky belonged. Whether this is actually so is unknown.

Anatoly Speransky graduated with honors from the aviation technical school. On April 12, 1961, he joined the Komsomol.

He graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute.

After graduating from the institute, he was assigned to a research institute, which was engaged in the development of aircraft weapons systems. This research institute has repeatedly changed its name and in 1990 received the name GosNIIAS. At the research institute, Anatoly Speransky went from a junior researcher to the deputy head of the institute, academician E.A. Fedosov.

It is interesting that Yevgeny Fedosov, who headed the institute from 1970 to 2006, mentioned many of his deputies in his book "Half a Century in Aviation", but did not say a word about Anatoly Speransky. Mentioning his deputies, Fedosov called them all by their last names, but in one place he made an exception and said that one of the deputies (without mentioning the last name) asked him to vouch for the Frunze regional executive committee to register the cooperative, which was organized by journalist Vladimir Yakovlev (son of the editor-in-chief of the newspaper "Moscow News"). Fedosov claimed that it was the Temp cooperative, but in reality it was probably the Fact cooperative, which worked as an information and reference service. Fedosov gave the go-ahead to support the cooperative. The institute leased several computers to the cooperative, which were scarce and expensive in the late 1980s. A year later, on the basis of this cooperative, one of the most influential Russian newspapers, Kommersant, was created. It is possible that this mysterious deputy head of the institute, who lobbied for the interests of the cooperative, could be Anatoly Speransky. It should be noted that the newspaper Moskovskie Novosti (headed in the 1980s by the father of cooperator Vladimir Yakovlev) was closed in 1949 as part of the fight against "cosmopolitanism", and began to be published again in 1956 (parallels with the biography of Anatoly Speransky's father). During Gorbachev's perestroika, Moskovskie Novosti took the positions of the "liberal" camp.

The research institute, in which Speransky worked, specialized in the development of automated systems, which were the forefront of the scientific and technological revolution in the 1970s-1980s, as a result of which the institute received special attention from the state. In addition, experts in the field of automation participated in the devel-opment of control systems, which were used not only in the technical field, but also in the field of public administration. One of the recognized authorities in the country in the field of management theory was Nikolai Nikolaevich Krasovsky from Sverdlovsk. Berezovsky Boris Abramovich, who in the 1990s was called the "gray eminence" of the Kremlin, also began to study management theory.

Around the beginning of the 1970s, Anatoly Speransky, who at that time was a leading specialist of the institute, organized, allegedly, the country's largest amateur as-sociation of readers, "Soyuz". Information was published that during these years under the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR, with the participation of senior officials of this ministry, an organization of book lovers was created, which became the basis for the formation in the 1980s of the association of "Russian nationalists" "Memory". This infor-mation is given in more detail in the article about the "Fatherland" association. It is possible that this organization of book lovers was the association of readers "Union", created by Speransky (the institute where Speransky worked was subordinate to the Minaviaprom).

Together with like-minded people, with the support of Boris Stukalin (Chairman of the USSR State Committee for Publishing, Printing and Book Trade) and Boris Pastukhov (First Secretary of the Komsomol Central Committee) Anatoly Speransky turned to the CPSU Central Committee with a proposal to create a legal public organization of book lovers. This organization was created in 1974 (All-Union Voluntary Society of Book Lovers). It should be noted that Stukalin and Pastukhov, presumably, were adherents of the ideas of "Russian nationalists" and were in opposition to the "liberal" camp, which had formed long before Gorbachev's perestroika. The son of Boris Stukalin studied at the Moscow Aviation Institute, from which Anatoly Speransky graduated.

The leadership of the USSR Ministry of Aviation Industry played a significant role in the course of perestroika. This is described in more detail in the article about the state-cooperative concern "AST". The scandal in connection with the activities of this concern in 1990 became the reason for the split of the "conservative" group in the governing bodies of the USSR or the reason for the final delimitation of the two groups of influence within the framework of the "conservative" camp. As a result, the influence of Boris Yeltsin, on which a group associated with the leadership of the Ministry of the Aviation Industry, staked, significantly increased.

In the late 1980s, at the research institute where Anatoly Speransky worked, a cooperative "Computer Services" was created under the leadership of mathematician V. Adler, who became the owner of his own paper production. Subsequently, the cooperative was transformed into the firm "KOMUS". According to unconfirmed information, it was in this company that Anatoly Speransky left to work from the institute and took up publishing activities, including the publication of school textbooks and teaching aids.

In 1992, Speransky acted as a co-founder of Scientific and Production Company LION LLP (Moscow). The head of the company was an expert in the field of woodworking Anatoly Stanislavovich Savitsky. Probably, the firm's activities were associated with the paper industry, which played an important role in the publishing activities of Anatoly Speransky.

In 1995 Speransky acted as a co-founder and head of CJSC Energopromstek (Moscow), which carried out technical work with power equipment.

In 1995 Speransky acted as a co-founder and head of the Regional Public Organization "Assistance to the Development of Educational Systems and Technologies" (publishing). In 1999, by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin, Anatoly Speransky, as the president of this public organization, was awarded the title "Honored Worker of Culture of the Russian Federation."

In 1996, Speransky acted as a co-founder of the Regional Public Organization "Harmony of the Structure of the Earth and Planets", which was engaged in publishing in the field of geology.

In 1996, Speransky acted as a co-founder and head of ZAO Knizhny Mir (INN 7701015512). It should be noted that in the same year, a few months later, another CJSC "Book World" (TIN 7706128710) was registered, which eventually grew into a large publishing house. According to the available data, the two firms are not legally connected in any way. The only revealed indirect connection between them is that both directors of these CJSCs (Anatoly Speransky and Dmitry Lobanov) in the 2000s were members of the Expert Council of the chairman of the board of the military-industrial commission of the Russian Federation.

In 1998 Anatoly Speranskiy acted as a co-founder and head of Tekhserviceenergo CJSC (Moscow).

Since 2001, there have been facts of cooperation between Anatoly Speransky and the State Specialized Enterprise for the mechanization of repair work at power plants and networks "REMENERGOMECHANIZATION". However, it is possible that this cooperation began earlier than 2001.

The state enterprise "Remenergomekhanizatsiya" was established in 1994 under the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation (since 2000 - under the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation). According to the available information, in the late 1990s - early 2000s, the enterprise was headed by the management employees of Interenergoservice CJSC, owned by Vyacheslav Ivanovich Barilo. This joint-stock company, founded in 1992, was engaged in the construction of energy facilities in non-CIS countries. It should be noted that in 2001, Igor Khanukovich Yusufov was appointed Minister of Energy of the Russian Federation, who at one time specialized in the construction of energy facilities in non-CIS countries. However, it was not possible to obtain data on his participation in the Interenergoservice and Remenergomekhanizatsia enterprises.

In 2002, vibration acceleration transducers manufactured by the state enterprise Remenergomekhanizatsiya, which were designed to measure vibration acceleration in equipment of the electrical, gas and oil industries, as well as in the aviation and rocket and space industries, were entered into the State Register. According to unconfirmed information, Anatoly Speransky played an important role in the development of this equipment.

In November 2002, in the city of Noginsk, Moscow Region, several legal entities were registered that were related to the activities of the state-owned enterprise "Remenergomekhanizatsiya":
- JSC "Remenergomehanizatsiya" - among the founders were the son of Anatoly Speransky (Speransky Kirill Anatolyevich), as well as the head of the state enterprise "Remenergomehanizatsiya" Kachanov Alexander Nikolaevich - according to available information, in 2003-2004 this company was mainly engaged in the sale of valves;
- LLC GSP-REM - the founders included the already mentioned Alexander Kachanov and the former Deputy Minister of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation Igor Vasilyevich Maskaev, who was brought to the government by Boris Nemtsov, who headed the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation in 1997 (in the second half of the 2000s years Maskaev headed the state-owned enterprise "Remenergomekhanizatsiya");
- LLC "REM-Vibro" - among the founders were Igor Borisovich Kobyakov (presumably the main developer of vibration transducers at the Remenergomekhanizatsiya enterprise) and Anatoly Speransky - the company continued to develop vibration transducers.

In 2006 Igor Kobyakov, Anatoly Speransky and Leonid Orbachevsky registered ZAO Vector Vibration Monitoring Systems (later, simply ZAO Vector Systems). The company was engaged in the development of security systems for technical facilities based on vector vibration transducers of the REM-vibro company. Work was carried out on the orders of OAO Gazprom and enterprises of the aviation industry.

In 2008, the company announced plans to squeeze out world leaders and, in the future, capture 20-30% of the global monitoring systems market. It was assumed that in 2013 the value of the company will be at least $ 1 billion. The company has not announced the successful implementation of these plans.

In 2011, Anatoly Speransky was elected a full member of the Russian Engineering Academy, in some sources he is referred to as the International Engineering Academy.

In the same year, Speransky took part in a seminar with the loud title "The Search for Truth through the Mechanisms of Sustainable Innovative Development". According to some testimonies, the “key star” of the seminar was the speaker Vladimir Ivanovich Govorov, who argued that “the Russian Proto-language is a language of Divine origin, the Bible is written in it, and it is the primary source of the origin of life in the Universe”. The attitude of Anatoly Speransky to these statements is unknown.

In 2012 in Yekaterinburg at the forum of industry and innovations "Innoprom-2012" it was announced the implementation of the first regional project of the Russian Engineering Academy in cooperation with the Ural branch of RIA. Anatoly Speransky spoke at one of the conferences within the framework of the Innoprom-2012 exhibition. According to Speransky, "in opposition to the immoral international consumer doctrine, the engineering community should take on the functions of expertise, recognition and all support for scientific, research and technological breakthroughs of the world's most talented Russian engineers." Speransky became one of the winners of the Cherepanov Prize, which was presented by the Governor of the Sverdlovsk Region Yevgeny Kuyvashev.

According to information for 2013, Speransky was Vice President for Science and New Technologies of the Russian Engineering Academy and headed the Institute of New (Science-Intensive) Engineering Technologies. He was a member of the Expert Council of the Chairman of the Board of the Military-Industrial Commission of the Russian Federation. It should be noted that the former Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Oleg Nikolaevich Soskovets was among the vice-presidents of the Russian Engineering Academy.

Summarizing the above, proceeding from the assumption that all the above facts and assumptions are true, a picture of a rather ambiguous personality emerges. As the son of a man accused of “cosmopolitanism,” Anatoly Speransky took part in creating the prototype of the most famous “Russian-nationalist” organization of the 1980s (the Memory Association), which viewed “cosmopolitan liberals” as its main enemies. After that, Speransky, presumably, contributed to the creation of the "liberal" newspaper Kommersant (although there is practically no evidence of this assumption). In the early 2000s, Speransky worked closely with a member of the team of the "Westernizer-liberal" Boris Nemtsov, and in the early 2010s he actively advocated in the "Russian-patriotic" spirit.

The following explanations for this "inconsistency" can be proposed.

The simplest explanation is that some of the above information and assumptions may be incorrect.

The second option: Speransky's ideological preferences were determined by opportunistic considerations. The "conservative" views of the Minaviaprom leadership in the 1970s determined the profitability of participating in the creation of "Russian-patriotic" organizations. The overwhelming influence of the "liberal" camp in the country in the late 1980s could have become a determining factor in lobbying the interests of the founders of the newspaper "Kommersant". To promote scientific developments, the help of officials was needed, and what kind of ideological orientation they were did not really matter. And in the second half of the 2000s, the fashion for “patriotism” reappeared.

The third version from the category of conspiracy theories. Perhaps Anatoly Speransky was related to a group of the ruling elite, which created social movements of the opposite ideological orientation in order to achieve their far-reaching goals. For example, the “Russian-patriotic” and “liberal-cosmopolitan” movements since the second half of the 1950s, despite their obvious opposition, converged in their opposition to the official Soviet ideology and ultimately both contributed to the collapse of the USSR.

Date of information update: 2014.