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The history of the formation of the political and economic elite in the Sverdlovsk region

Oleg Ivanovich Lobov

Born September 7, 1937 in Kiev. Information was published that Lobov's father was the chief engineer of the Kiev Dairy Plant.

In 1955-1960. studied at the Rostov Institute of Railway Engineers (Faculty of Industrial and Civil Engineering). Graduated with honors.

In 1960-1963. - Engineer, Senior Engineer, Group Leader, Chief Designer of the Construction Department of the Uralgiprokhim Institute. Sverdlovsk.

In 1963-1965. - Chief Designer of the Department of the UralpromstroyNIIproekt Institute (the basic institute of the USSR State Construction Committee in the Sverdlovsk Region).

In 1965-1966. - and about. head of the construction department of the Uralgiprokhim Institute.

In 1966-1972. - and about. Sector Leader, Sector Leader, Acting Chief Engineer, Chief Engineer of the UralpromstroyNIIproekt Institute. For a significant part of the period of work at UralpromstroyNIIproekt, Lobov was engaged in research and implementation of pile foundations in the Tyumen region, where construction projects related to oil production were unfolding.

In 1972-1975. Lobov was the deputy head of the construction department of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU. The head of the construction department at that time was Boris Yeltsin. Information was published that Yeltsin chose Lobov as his deputy, because they became friends during a joint trip to Finland in 1971. However, those who knew Yeltsin argued that Yeltsin had a hard time getting along with people, and that Lobov so quickly became a confidant of Yeltsin was unusual for Yeltsin.

There is a version that, in fact, Lobov was a protégé of Yakov Petrovich Ryabov, who in 1971 headed the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU and patronized Boris Yeltsin. However, Ryabov himself claimed that Yeltsin.

If Yeltsin was a practical builder, Lobov was a designer, a "theoretician." However, the builders who worked together with Lobov noted his high professionalism, which allowed him to understand all the nuances of the construction business, which was unusual for designers. According to eyewitnesses, the restrained, consistent Lobov complemented and balanced the impetuous and assertive Yeltsin. Perhaps Yeltsin and Lobov were still united by their passion for volleys.

In 1975-1976. Lobov was the head of the construction department of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU (Yeltsin became the secretary of the regional committee of the CPSU).

In 1976-1982 Lobov headed the Main Territorial Administration for Construction in the Middle Urals (Glavsreduralstroy of the USSR Ministry of Heavy Construction). Lobov became the youngest head of the territorial Main Directorate in the construction system of the USSR. In addition, as indicated above, Lobov was not a practitioner, but a theoretician. Glavsreduralstroy, however, has always been headed by builders with extensive experience, who have gone through all the stages of the construction hierarchy. Probably, the fact that in 1976 Boris Yeltsin became the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU helped to overcome the resistance of other potential candidates.

In 1982, Oleg Lobov continues his party career.

1982-1983 - Secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU.

In 1983-1985 - the second secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU. Boris Yeltsin was the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU.

In 1985-1987 - Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Sverdlovsk Regional Council of People's Deputies.

In 1987 – inspector of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

In 1987-1989 Oleg Lobov works as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR.

After the earthquake in Armenia in December 1988, Oleg Lobov, as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, in charge of capital construction, was appointed Deputy Head of the RSFSR Headquarters for the elimination of the consequences of the emergency.

Construction companies of the Sverdlovsk region, including the Sverdlovskstroytrans trust, headed by Valery Fedorovich Belous, who was allegedly a friend of Oleg Lobov, took an active part in eliminating the consequences of the emergency.

According to Lobov, it was during the liquidation of the state of emergency that he met the members of the Bureau of the Communist Party of Armenia, which played an important role in his future career.

Since 1989, Oleg Lobov has been the second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia. According to Lobov, he received an offer to transfer from Moscow to Armenia from the former first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia, Harutyunyan Suren Gurgenovich. The secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia G. Galoyan also took part in this.

In the USSR, a Slav was usually appointed second secretary of non-Slavic republics, who served as a link between the party elite of the titular nation of the republic and the leadership of the CPSU Central Committee in Moscow. In addition, of course, the second secretary monitored the state of affairs in the republic so that local party bosses did not become too independent. However, the process of weakening the apparatus of the CPSU and separatist tendencies in the union republics reached such intensity that the second secretary no longer had the same influence if he did not enjoy the support of the republican leadership. Lobov had such support.

In 1989, Oleg Lobov was elected People's Deputy of the USSR. It was assumed that the new representative body of the country would become much more influential than before, and would cease to be an obedient executor of the will of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR.

In 1990, at the XXVIII Congress of the CPSU, the issue of the possibility of combining the posts of President of the USSR and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU was decided. A number of congress delegates suggested that Gorbachev refuse to be elected general secretary and retain the post of only president. As for the general secretary, it was proposed to elect Oleg Lobov (among other candidates). Gorbachev did not agree to withdraw his candidacy, and Lobov urged to vote for Gorbachev.

In the same year, Oleg Lobov was nominated for the post of first secretary of the newly created Communist Party of the RSFSR. However, Ivan Polozkov, a representative of the conservative wing of the CPSU, won the election. At that time, Boris Yeltsin was one of the main figures of the opposition movement and Oleg Lobov, as a long-time ally of Yeltsin , could be seen as a representative of the opposition to the leadership of the Central Committee of the CPSU headed by Gorbachev, who tried to stay above the clash of "conservatives" and "democrats" in the CPSU, but in the elections the first secretary of the Communist Party of the CPSU took the side of Polozkov. Nevertheless, Lobov, most likely, could not be regarded as a representative of the "democratic" wing of the CPSU. Rather, he could be attributed to the "moderate conservatives" who, after the scandal with the concern "AST" and the loss in the fight for control over the Communist Party of the RSFSR, dissociated themselves from Gorbachev and supported Yeltsin.

From April to November 1991, Lobov worked as deputy, first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR.

During the coup in August 1991, Oleg Lobov, at the direction of Boris Yeltsin, headed the "reserve" government of the RSFSR, which was located in the Sverdlovsk region and was supposed to take action in the event of the arrest of the leadership of the RSFSR in Moscow.

In November 1991, on the initiative of Oleg Lobov, the government of the RSFSR created the Russian-Japanese University as an international public organization for the development of dialogue between Russia and Japan in all spheres of human activity. It was assumed that this organization will facilitate the receipt of loans and humanitarian aid from Japan. The university was given a building in Moscow at Petrovka str., 14. This building housed the Ministry of Industry of the RSFSR and the Rosyugstroy concern. Subsequently, most of Oleg Lobov's commercial enterprises in the 1990s will be registered at this address.

Alexander Vladimirovich Muravyov became the head of the Russian-Japanese University. Information was published that until 1991 Muravyov served in the KGB, a seconded officer to the USSR State Planning Committee. He retired with the rank of lieutenant colonel. It was reported that the Deputy Chairman of the State Committee of the RSFSR for Economics Leonid Zapalsky, the founder (together with Academician Yevgeny Velikhov) of the Scientific and Industrial Union (later the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs) Arkady Volsky and Chairman of the Committee of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR for International Affairs and foreign economic relations (at the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs he specialized in the countries of the Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia) Vladimir Lukin.

The most famous "achievement" of the Russian-Japanese University was the establishment of ties with the Japanese sect "Aum Shinrike". Information was published that, allegedly, already in 1991, Alexander Muravyov organized demonstration firing and acquaintance with various types of weapons for Japanese "entrepreneurs" from "Aum Shinrikyo". Subsequently, this was explained by the leadership of the university with plans to sell weapons to Japan. The members of the sect themselves called it in their propaganda leaflets "undergoing military training in Russia."

The leader of the sect called himself Shoko Asahara (real name Chizuo Matsumoto). The Moskovsky Komsomolets newspaper claimed that Nikolai Borisov, an employee of the Russian Embassy in Japan, facilitated Asahara's penetration into Russia. Several other sources called Borisov a KGB resident in Japan. Academician Yevgeny Velikhov in his book describes Borisov as a scientific adviser to the Russian embassy, who introduced Velikhov to the most influential (according to Velikhov) person in Japan - the founder of the Toshiba company, chairman of the Council of Japanese Industrialists Doko-san (Toshio Doko). It should be noted that academician Yevgeny Velikhov is presumably one of the central figures in that group of the Russian elite, to which Oleg Lobov belongs.

On March 20, 1995, AUM Shinrikyo staged a terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway using the nerve gas sarin. Due to an error in the manufacture of gas, the number of deaths was relatively small - 11 people. About five thousand more people were included in the list of "poisoned". On April 23, 1997, one of the cultists, Yoshihiro Inoue, testified in court. The Japanese news agency Kyodo Tsushin, referring to them, disseminated information according to which, in the fall of 1993, Lobov allegedly transferred the technology of sarin production to AUM, receiving 10 million yen (about 100 thousand dollars) in Paris for this. During interrogation at the Prosecutor General's Office of the Russian Federation, Lobov categorically denied that he had received a bribe.

It should be noted that in the complex of buildings at Petrovka str., 14, among a number of other organizations there was a cosmetic company "Mirra-Lux", which was established in 1992 on the basis of the All-Union Research Institute of Applied Microbiology. According to unconfirmed reports, one of the tasks of this institute was the development of biological weapons. It remains to be hoped that the developments of this institute did not fall into the hands of the followers of Asahara.

In 1991-1992, Oleg Lobov headed the Expert Council under the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation.

1992-1993 - Head of the Expert Council under the President of the Russian Federation.

Lobov's work on the Expert Council was viewed by many as removing Lobov from real power. During this period of time, the tone in the Russian government was set by liberal economists (Yegor Gaidar, Anatoly Chubais), who carried out radical reforms that contradicted the views of the conservative Oleg Lobov, who advocated a gradual long-term transition of enterprises from state ownership to private ownership. The lobbyist of the liberals, which means Lobov's opponent in Yeltsin's inner circle, was Gennady Burbulis.

During the same period of time, Lobov headed the Russian State Investment Corporation.

In 1992, in accordance with the decree of the President of the Russian Federation, it was planned to create an international concern for the extraction of Ural emeralds with the participation of the state. In 1993, the Emerald Mines of the Urals JSC was created on the basis of the Malyshevsky mining administration in the Sverdlovsk region. This company, with the help of the representative of the President of the Russian Federation in the Sverdlovsk region, Vitaly Mashkov, found an investor in the person of JSC "New Guild". One of the shareholders of the "New Guild" was the son of the head of the traffic police in Yekaterinburg Khalturin Alexander Alfredovich, married to the daughter of the director of the Sverdlovskstroytrans trust Valery Belous, who was allegedly a friend of Oleg Lobov. The mining of emeralds in the Sverdlovsk region was a highly profitable event, which many tried to cash in, with the support of both criminal groups and state security agencies. Considering that along with emeralds at the Malyshevsky mine, beryllium was also mined, which is used in the defense industry, this mine was of particular interest to the security forces. The struggle for the mine unfolded not only at the level of influential persons in the Sverdlovsk region, but also in Moscow. It is not excluded that Oleg Lobov provided support to JSC "New Guild" in Moscow.

In 1995, an investigation began against the management of New Guild JSC, which established that the company's security service was actually a criminal group that carried out murders, extortion and other serious crimes.

Information was published that Oleg Lobov provided support to businessman Alexander Smolensky ("Capital Bank of Savings", later "SBS-Agro"). It was reported that Smolensky allegedly provided material support to the AUM Shinrike sect, with which Lobov contacted, and the Sverdlovsk and Armenian criminal groups had interests in the Capital Savings Bank. Recall that Oleg Lobov, who worked for a long time in the Sverdlovsk region, in 1989 was the second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia. Information was published about the close relationship between Alexander Smolensky and the crime boss Leonid Bilunov. In turn, Bilunov was associated with the Sverdlovsk organized criminal group "Center". In 1996, Stolichny Savings Bank acquired a controlling stake in Zoloto-Platina Bank in Yekaterinburg. Zoloto-Platina Bank actively lent to the Ural Gold-Platinum Company, which was developing the Malyshevsky emerald deposit. As mentioned above, Oleg Lobov could have been involved in this activity.

In January 1993, Oleg Lobov headed the board of founders of the Russian Aerospace Conversion Center. At the address Moscow, Petrovka str., 14, AOZT Aerokosmos-Bank (Joint-Stock Commercial Bank for Aerospace Complex Conversion) was registered. Information was published that Aerokosmos-Bank could be involved in the activities of CJSC Daurskaya Mining Company + (CJSC DGK +), which issued promissory notes secured by reserves of precious metals of gold mining artels (from the Khabarovsk Territory, Amur, Chita regions and others gold mining regions of the country). The bills were allegedly issued in 1996, and in the same year the bank's banking license was revoked. It was reported that Anatoly Chubais impeded the activities of CJSC DGK +.

The aerospace industry was a key industry for that group of the Soviet (later Russian) elite, which included Oleg Lobov. This group of persons with a fairly high degree of probability can be attributed to the former secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, who oversaw the military-industrial complex, Yakov Petrovich Ryabov, who led the Sverdlovsk region until Boris Yeltsin, the former chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Ivan Silaev, the former Minister of the aviation industry of the USSR Appolon Sistsov, Major General The retired KGB of Alexander Sterligov, who headed the security of Boris Yeltsin during the coup in 1991, the former head of the PGU KGB of the USSR (foreign intelligence) Leonid Shebarshin, the former vice-president of the USSR Academy of Sciences Yevgeny Velikhov. The aerospace industry was a key high-tech industry in the Soviet military-industrial complex. This industry was the pioneer of computerization in the USSR. Work in this industry, despite the high level of secrecy, involved participation in international technological cooperation, which eventually grew into economic cooperation, creating the basis for the accumulation of capital for the nascent Russian oligarchy. With the participation of the USSR Ministry of Aviation Industry, the scandalous concern "AST" was created. Mikhail Khodorkovsky created his Intersectoral Center for Scientific and Technical Programs, on the basis of which the Menatep group was formed, under the Frunzensky District Committee of the Komsomol, which closely interacted with aviation institutes located in the Frunzensky District of Moscow.

In 1993 Lobov created the Association for International Cooperation with Budgetary Financing. According to available information, the founders of the Association were the Russian-Japanese University, the Foreign Policy Fund and the Fund for Humanitarian and Economic Relations with France. It should be noted that France was of particular im-portance to the aforementioned group of individuals. In 1985, Yakov Ryabov headed the USSR delegation in France and was the co-chairman of the French-Soviet Commission for Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation. In the same year, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Mikhail Gorbachev, during his visit to France, proposed to President Mitterrand to implement an international project to build an experimental thermonuclear reactor. The construction of the reactor began in France in 2007 with the participation of the European Union, Russia, the USA, Japan, China, India, the Republic of Korea and Kazakhstan. On the Russian side, Academician Evgeny Velikhov is responsible for the implementation of the project. Successful implementation of the project can lead to global changes in the world economy. However, more than 50 years have passed since the idea of building a thermonuclear reactor appeared, and it is not known when it will be implemented in practice.

In April 1993, Lobov was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Minister of Economy of the Russian Federation. At that moment, Russian President Boris Yeltsin was in a difficult conflict with the head of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation Ruslan Khasbulatov and Vice President of the Russian Federation Alexander Rutskoi. It was assumed that Lobov's task was to maintain the loyalty of the Russian government to Boris Yeltsin.

As First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Lobov began to actively lobby for the interests of the timber industry and continued to do so after leaving the government. In 1994, with the support of Lobov, the state-owned company Roslesprom received the functions of the general distributor of export quotas for timber, the management company of a number of timber holdings, and the coordinator of the distribution of state funds intended to support the industry.

Oleg Lobov harshly criticized the voucher privatization carried out by Anatoly Chubais. It was argued that in this conflict, Lobov's ally was Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov. As a result of the confrontation with Chubais and Gaidar, Lobov in September 1993 was forced to leave his posts in the government and headed a more suitable position for him as secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, which under Lobov was an influential structure in the country not so much because he had real powers, but thanks to his connections Lobov in the power structures of the Russian Federation.

In 1993-1996, Lobov was the secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation. He played an important role in the military confrontation with the Rutskoy-Khasbulatov group in 1993.

In 1994, Aleksey Alekseevich Bolshakov, a resident of St. Petersburg, was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. Information was published that he was appointed to this position with the support of Oleg Lobov. In 1996, Bolshakov, in turn, will facilitate the transfer to Moscow of another resident of St. Petersburg - Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich, who in 2000 will become the President of the Russian Federation.

Information was published that Lobov allegedly contacted the criminal authority from Khabarovsk Podatev Vladimir Petrovich (nickname "Poodle"). According to unconfirmed information, Podatev could be associated with one of the leaders of the OCG Center (Yekaterinburg) Vladimir Klementyev, who has connections with the Foratek group. This group of companies had high hopes for the construction of a high-speed railway line from Moscow to Yekaterinburg. In the 1990s, the aforementioned Aleksey Bolshakov was the main lobbyist for the construction of high-speed railways in Russia.

Probably, the support of Oleg Lobov during this period of time was enjoyed by the head of the Pharmimex company, Alexander Apazov, who in 1973-1978 headed the Sverdlovsk Pharmacy Department, and later headed the Main Pharmacy Department of the RSFSR and the USSR. Pharmimex, the legal successor of the Main Pharmacy Department, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in Russia, the main source of the company's income is government orders. When Lobov became the secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, he appointed Alexander Apazov to the Council instead of the Minister of Health of the Russian Federation Eduard Nechaev, with whom Apazov was in conflict. Oleg Lobov's son-in-law Oleg Gennadyevich Shangin and his father Gennady Nikolayevich Shangin worked at Farmimex.

Since August 1995, Oleg Lobov has been the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in the Chechen Republic. In December 1995, a decision was made to send troops into Chechnya.

In June 1996, Lobov ceded the post of Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation to General Alexander Lebed as part of the pre-election agreements between Yeltsin and Lebed. In the first round of presidential elections in the Russian Federation, Lebed took third place and agreed to support Yeltsin's candidacy in the second round on certain conditions, one of which was the post of Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.

From June 1996 to March 1997, Lobov was Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. Lobov inherited the functionality of the new position from Oleg Soskovets, who was forced to resign due to the conflict with Anatoly Chubais. What kind of relationship Oleg Lobov had with the Soskovets-Korzhakov-Barsukov group, based on the information available at the moment, it is difficult to say. Ideologically, they were close, in the past there were connections, but they apparently did not have common economic interests in the 1990s.

After leaving the Government of the Russian Federation, Oleg Lobov went into private business. His key company was the Republican Innovation Company "RINCO" (design and construction activities), established in 1997. In addition, he took part in the activities of the construction company ZAO Center ECOMMASH, established in 1992 and implementing construction projects mainly in Moscow and the North Caucasus.

The successful implementation of projects in Moscow was facilitated by Lobov's ties with the Moscow government under the leadership of Yuri Luzhkov. One of the founders of the RINCO company was the Mosaero company, whose activities in the early 1990s were supervised by the Deputy Prime Minister of Moscow Iosif Ordzhonikidze, who was responsible for foreign economic activity in the Moscow government.

Oleg Lobov founded a significant part of companies and public organizations jointly with the former Minister of Housing and Communal Services of the RSFSR Albert Ivanov.

Oleg Lobov was a member of the management bodies of the Tantal holding company, formed on the basis of the Saratov production association Tantal (production of devices for the military-industrial complex, aerospace and energy).

Pavel Lobov, the son of Oleg Lobov, together with the aforementioned Leonid Zapalsky, was a minority shareholder of the satellite communications company Zond-Holding.

In addition to entrepreneurial activity, Oleg Lobov was also involved in social activities, which, however, were closely intertwined with entrepreneurial ones. Lobov headed the Association for International Cooperation, created with his participation, as well as the following organizations: the Moscow-Taipei Commission for Economic and Cultural Cooperation (interaction with Taiwan), the Russian Society of Civil Engineers, the Supervisory Board of the All-Russian Public Institution “Public Institute for Environmental Expertise”, SRO NP “ International Guild of Transport Builders."

At the end of February 2006, Energofinance CJSC was registered in Moscow, the founders of which were Oleg Lobov, his traditional business partners (Shatov Yuri Ivanovich, Chernikov Lev Nikolaevich, Ivanov Albert Petrovich), as well as several other individuals, among which it should be specially noted Sterligov Alexander Nikolaevich (presumably a retired major general of the KGB, who took an active part in the creation of the concern "AST"), as well as two citizens of Germany. The main activity of Energofinance CJSC was indicated as “Other financial intermediation”. The company was headed by Oleg Lobov.

A few days later, in Novy Urengoy (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug), CJSC Investment and Construction Company Yamal was registered with a similar list of founders, albeit in a somewhat truncated form (in particular, without German citizens), but with Lobov and Sterligov. The main activity was indicated as "Extraction of natural gas and gas condensate". In 2012 the company was liquidated. It was not possible to establish the volume of gas produced by Oleg Lobov and Alexander Sterligov.

Information was published that Lobov was related to the activities of the representative offices of companies registered in the Netherlands (Tverskaya Finance BV BV and Dorenia BV). According to the Kommersant newspaper, Lobov admitted that he was the executive director of the Russian office of Tverskaya Finance BV. This company has implemented large construction projects in Moscow.

According to available information, brothers Gevorkyan Georgy Albertovich and Gevorkyan Sergey Albertovich were involved in the activities of Tverskaya Finance BV and Dorenia BV. The Gevorkyan brothers, together with Gagik Adibekyan and an entrepreneur of "Soviet-Israeli" origin, Boris Kuzinets, started their business in the Moscow real estate market in the second half of the 1990s thanks to cooperation with the leadership of Moscow State University. It is not known for what merits this group of entrepreneurs received a long-term lease from the university "golden" land in the center of the Russian capital on very favorable terms for entrepreneurs.

There is also information that the former vice-presidents of AvtoVAZ, Mikhail Valerievich Moskalev and Alexander Nikolayevich Pronin, were directly involved in the activities of Tverskaya Finance BV. According to Forbes magazine, Mikhail Moskalev played an important role in the fact that the state company Rosoboronexport, headed by Sergey Viktorovich Chemezov, became the main shareholder of AvtoVAZ. After leaving AvtoVAZ, Alexander Pronin became an advisor to Sergei Chemezov, who at that time was already heading the state corporation Rostekhnologii, formed on the basis of the state-owned company Rosoboronexport.

When registering offshore companies in the British Virgin Islands, the above group of persons associated with Tverskaya Finance BV preferred to register them with the help of Commonwealth Trust Limited, which became widely known in 2013, thanks to the publication of the International Center for Investigative Journalism (ICIJ), in which reported that Commonwealth Trust Limited registered many offshore companies that launder criminal capital around the world. According to available information, Commonwealth Trust Limited could be associated with persons from the inner circle of Oleg Lobov.

As of 2015, Oleg Lobov continued to lead ZAO Center ECOMMASH, the Russian Society of Civil Engineers, the Moscow-Taipei Commission for Economic and Cultural Cooperation.

Date of information update: 2015.