Yakov Petrovich Ryabov
Born on March 24, 1928 in the village of Shishkeevo, Ruzaevsky District, Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The ninth child in the family.
In 1930, Yakov Ryabov's parents came to Sverdlovsk to build the Uralmashplant. Father (Peter Timofeevich) is a carpenter, mother is a plasterer.
Since May 1942, after finishing the 7th grade, Ryabov worked on a collective farm in the Turinsky district of the Sverdlovsk region.
From October 1942 he studied at a mechanical engineering college with a degree in Design, Production and Testing of Tank Diesel Engines. At the same time he worked at Uralmashzavod as a turner, then as a milling machine operator, driller, carousel operator.
In 1944 he joined the Komsomol at a military training camp.
In 1946, after graduating from technical school, he was sent to the 76th plant (now the Ural Turbomotor Plant). At the same time he studied at the Ural Polytechnic Institute in the evening department. He was a member of the factory committee of the Komsomol (1946-1948), was elected to other higher Komsomol organizations. He was engaged in the design and production of tank engines (design technician). He went in for sports, was the champion of Sverdlovsk and the Sverdlovsk region in classical wrestling.
In December 1954, he was appointed head of one of the leading workshops of the Ural Turbomotor Plant. He was a member of the party committee of the plant.
In 1958 he was elected secretary of the party committee of the Ural Turbomotor Plant. By this time Ryabov had a secondary technical and higher education, graduated from the evening university of Marxism-Leninism.
At the beginning of 1960, on the initiative of the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU, A.P. Kirilenko, Ryabov was elected a candidate member of the regional committee. Kirilenko was one of the closest associates of Leonid Brezhnev, who in 1960 was the chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (the second person in the state apparatus of the USSR), and in 1964 he became the first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee (the actual head of state).
In October 1960, Ryabov, at the insistence of A.P. Kirilenko, was elected first secretary of the Ordzhonikidze district committee of the CPSU in Sverdlovsk. Under the leadership of Ryabov, LF Bobykin worked as the secretary of the Ordzhonikidze district committee, about whom Ryabov spoke well.
In January 1963 Ryabov was elected first secretary of the Sverdlovsk city committee of the CPSU. Ryabov spoke negatively about the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU of that time, K.K. Nikolaev. Probably, Ryabov owed his election not to Nikolayev, but to the former first secretary, Andrei Kirilenko, who in 1962 went to be promoted to the Central Committee of the CPSU.
In early 1966, Ryabov was elected second secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU. Supervised heavy industry and construction.
Since 1967, Ryabov, according to him, in many respects performed the functions of the first secretary of the regional committee in connection with the poor health of the first secretary Konstantin Nikolaev. The Sverdlovsk region at that time ranked third in the country in terms of industrial production.
At the end of 1968, Ryabov recommended Boris Yeltsin for the post of head of the construction department of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU. According to Ryabov, Yeltsin treated his work conscientiously and responsibly. At the same time, there were many claims to him for "rudeness, callous attitude towards people and even insults."
On January 6, 1971, Ryabov was elected first secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the CPSU.
In 1971, Ryabov suggested that Yeltsin choose a good deputy for himself. Yeltsin named Oleg Lobov, and Ryabov approved his candidacy after meeting with Lobov.
In 1971, Ryabov, being the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU, promoted the production of the T-72 tank (Uralvagonzavod) instead of the T-64 (Kharkov plant). In this regard, Ryabov clashed with the secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Dmitry Ustinov, who was in charge of the military-industrial complex of the USSR. On the side of Ustinov was the Ministry of Defense Industry, and on the side of Ryabov - the Ministry of Defense (A.A. Grechko).
Yakov Ryabov established good relations with Slavsky Efim Pavlovich, who headed the Ural aluminum plant during the Second World War, and later headed the USSR Ministry of Medium Machine Building (nuclear industry). Slavsky was on the same side with Ryabov against Ustinov. Ryabov's friendship with Slavsky began in 1961 at the regional party conference to elect delegates to the XXII party congress. At that time, Slavsky was already a minister, and Ryabov was the first secretary of the Ordzhonikidze district committee of the CPSU. They were both elected as delegates to the CPSU congress from the Sverdlovsk region.
In 1972-1973, TENEX entered into an agreement on uranium enrichment with the French company CIFAL. The enrichment was probably carried out by the Ural Electrochemical Plant (Sverdlovsk-44, now Novouralsk). The leaders and owners of the CIFAL firm were representatives of the French elite who sympathized with the USSR and communist ideology. It was suggested that the USSR's military intelligence had a hand in the creation of the company. At the turn of the 1990s-2000s, after his retirement, Yakov Ryabov worked in the Russian representative office of CIFAL.
Thanks to Ryabov's good relations with Slavsky, in the Sverdlovsk region, some objects were built with the participation of the construction capacities of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building. So, with the participation of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building, a 22-storey building of the Sverdlovsk Regional Executive Committee and the Council of People's Deputies was built.
According to Yakov Ryabov, his critical speech in December 1974 at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU had a great resonance in the leadership of the CPSU. Ryabov criticized the USSR Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy (I.P. Kazanets) and the USSR State Planning Committee (N. Baybakov). Subsequently, the general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid Brezhnev called members of the government and pointed out Ryabov's speech. Ryabov's speech was approved by the secretaries of the CPSU Central Committee A.P. Kirilenko and I.V. Kapitonov.
1975 was a turning point for the Sverdlovsk region. The region had previously been a source of personnel for the center, but in 1975 there was a particularly large "appeal": the director of the Uralmash plant N.I. Ryzhkov was appointed first deputy minister of heavy engineering, the director of the Ural turbomotor plant M.I. Neuymin - the first deputy transport and energy engineering, the second secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU G.V. Kolbin, whom Ryabov highly appreciated, was elected second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia. Ryabov already had good relations with the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia E. Shevardnadze, but after the election of Kolbin they became even warmer.
Instead of Kolbin E.A. Korovin was elected the second secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU (in the future, the post of first secretary). However, Korovin himself was not eager for power. Boris Yeltsin was appointed secretary of the regional committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, responsible for construction, to gain experience in interacting with people. However, according to Ryabov, even then Yeltsin showed significant progress, since he was given to understand that the success of relationships with people would affect his further career growth. At that time, the Ryabovs and Yeltsins were family friends.
In November 1975, the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU IV Kapitonov told Ryabov that the Central Committee of the CPSU had allowed a film crew from Germany to shoot a short film about the life of the secretary of the regional committee of the CPSU using the example of the Sverdlovsk region. According to Ryabov, he refused to Kapitonov, but then M. Suslov, who was one of the most influential people in the country, got involved in this case, and Ryabov had to obey. The film was released in West Berlin in February 1976.
According to Ryabov, in 1976 there was no stagnation. Many different issues were solved every day. Apparently, Ryabov believed that the region and the country at that time were developing dynamically, although he spoke very unflatteringly about Brezhnev's entourage, with the exception of those with whom he had good relations.
In 1976, D.F. Ustinov, who was the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, in charge of the military-industrial complex, was appointed Minister of Defense of the USSR instead of the deceased A.A. Grechko. Yakov Ryabov was elected secretary of the CPSU Central Committee instead of Ustinov in October 1976. Ryabov's election was supported by F.D. Kulakov, A.P. Kirilenko, I.V. Kapitonov. Ustinov wanted to see in this post his protege, chairman of the military-industrial complex L.V. Smirnov, but, according to Ryabov, M. Suslov opposed this. As a result, Ryabov stood between Ustinov and Smirnov, since the military-industrial complex, in fact, was subordinate to the secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, who was in charge of the military-industrial complex. However, the connection between Ustinov and Smirnov only grew stronger. Subsequently, it was under the influence of Ustinov that Ryabov "left" the Central Committee of the CPSU.
Ryabov proposed Boris Yeltsin for the post of first secretary of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU, although IV Kapitonov recommended Korovin to Brezhnev. But Ryabov regarded Korovin as a weak character with health problems.
According to Ryabov, Yeltsin began to change for the worse around 1982, when he "twisted into a ram's horn" the rest of the region's leaders and began to advertise on television, scolding his subordinates and getting approval from the region's residents for this.
As the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, in addition to the military-industrial complex, Ryabov supervised the department of administrative bodies of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which included all power ministries and departments (the Ministry of Defense, the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Civil Aviation, the court, the prosecutor's office, the Ministry of Justice).
Yakov Ryabov left the post of secretary of the CPSU Central Committee in April 1979 and was appointed first deputy chairman of the USSR State Planning Committee. A.P. Kirilenko, who supported Ryabov in everything, this time could not help. Presumably, Ryabov's (Ustinov) ill-wishers used to remove him from the fact that Ryabov admitted the fact of Leonid Brezhnev's illness in a conversation with the party activists of the Sverdlovsk region.
While working in the State Planning Committee, Ryabov was approved as the permanent chairman of the Intergovernmental Commission on Cooperation of Socialist Countries in the Field of Computer Technology.
In November 1982, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid Brezhnev died.
In May 1983, the new general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Yuri Andropov, nominated Yakov Ryabov as chairman of the USSR State Committee for Electricity Power Systems (State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations). According to Andropov, the former chairman of the GKES Skachkov Semyon Andreevich has outlived himself, and his first deputy (V.G. Morozov) is stuck in dubious ties. Workers Pavlov and Smolyakov associated with Morozov were subsequently sentenced to capital punishment. Ryabov called another first deputy chairman of the GKES, Colonel-General M.A. Sergeichik, who was engaged in special deliveries (arms trade), his old friend. At the suggestion of Ryabov, instead of Morozov, the first deputy chairman of the GKES was appointed an economic adviser in Cuba, A.I. Kachanov.
It should be noted that Yakov Ryabov had long known the "obsolete" Semyon Skachkov, whom Ryabov replaced as chairman of the State Committee for Power Stations. From 1946 to 1949 Skachkov headed the Uralvagonzavod in the city of Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk region. This plant produced tanks, and Ryabov at that time was engaged in the design of tank engines. According to Ryabov, in 1946 he met the chief designer of the Uralvagonzavod, Alexander Morozov. It is safe to say that Ryabov knew the head of the Uralvagonzavod Skachkov, but whether they met in person and what kind of relationship they had (if any) could not yet be established.
In February 1984, Yuri Andropov, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, died.
In September 1984, the new general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Konstantin Chernenko, confronted Yakov Ryabov with the fact of his appointment as deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers (overseeing the chemical, petrochemical and forestry complexes). Previously, this was done by a good friend of Ryabov, Leonid Kostandov, who died in September 1984. Ryabov himself wanted to be deputy chairman for foreign economic activity.
Ryabov recommended K. Katushev for the post of chairman of the GKES. Ustinov insisted on the appointment of Sergeichik. Despite the fact that Sergeichik was a friend of Ryabov, Ryabov, according to him, opposed his candidacy because of Sergeichik's advanced age and illness, and so as not to "decipher the committee." According to Ryabov, Sergeichik himself opposed this appointment.
To understand the role of Yakov Ryabov in the authorities of the USSR, it is necessary to touch in more detail the issue of the essence of the GKES of the USSR and the alignment of forces in the military-industrial complex (MIC) of the USSR.
The State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations under the Council of Ministers of the USSR (GKES USSR) was engaged in foreign economic relations mainly with the countries of the socialist camp or with regimes friendly to this camp. Foreign economic relations with the capitalist countries were handled by the USSR Ministry of Foreign Trade. Taking into account the fact that the countries of the socialist camp were not very economically developed, the bulk of exports from the USSR to these countries were weapons, and imports were raw materials. In this regard, representatives of the military-industrial complex played the main role in the GKES of the USSR.
In the Politburo under Leonid Brezhnev, two main groups could be distinguished that controlled the military-industrial complex. In one group the main roles were played by Andrey Kirilenko and Marshal Andrey Grechko. In another group, the main persons were Dmitry Ustinov and Grigory Romanov. It is difficult to say what caused the conflict between these groups. It can be suggested that, in addition to the usual interpersonal conflicts and power struggles, the differences between these groups could also lie on the ideological plane. The Kirilenko-Grechko group, which included Yakov Ryabov, who is being considered here, has an orientation toward finding partners abroad (mainly in the countries of the socialist camp, where Soviet weapons were exported), while the Ustinov-Romanov group considered other countries primarily as potential adversaries, focusing their economic interests on the production of weapons for "internal consumption" - the country's defense against external threats. Accordingly, the representatives of the first group were more open to the perception of new political and economic forms, while the representatives of the second group were more conservative. Although the first group could in no way be ranked among the camp of "liberals". The "liberal" camp was formed, most likely, in the ranks of those elite groups of the USSR that worked with the capitalist countries (ministries of foreign trade and foreign affairs). Thus, the aforementioned groups in the military-industrial complex can be characterized as “moderately conservative” and “superconservative”.
In the last years of Leonid Brezhnev's life, the Ustinov-Andropov-Gromyko trio played the main role in the Politburo. Perhaps they were representatives of these three groups of influence: "superconservative" Dmitry Ustinov (Ministry of Defense), "moderate conservative" Yuri Andropov (KGB) and "liberal" Andrei Gromyko (Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
After the head of the GKES Mikhail Sergeichik retired in 1985, the GKES was nevertheless headed by Konstantin Katushev, who was initially recommended for this position by Yakov Ryabov. Judging by the memoirs of Katushev, Andrei Kirilenko helped him in his career growth. Alexander Kachanov retained the post of first deputy chairman of GKES, who received this position on Ryabov's recommendation. Presumably, both Katushev and Kachanov belonged to the group of "moderate conservatives" along with Ryabov. In 1988, the USSR Ministry of Foreign Trade and the USSR GKES were merged into the USSR Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations. The new ministry was headed by Konstantin Katushev and Alexander Kachanov. However, judging by the recollections of the employees of this ministry, the separation of "liberals" and "conservatives" did not disappear at one moment: in the new ministry, former employees of the Ministry of Foreign Trade were engaged in relations with the capitalist countries, and former employees of the USSR GKES were dealing with the countries of the socialist camp.
In 1985, being the deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Yakov Ryabov served as co-chairman of the Great Soviet-French Commission on Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation, and headed the Soviet part of this commission. The commission itself was created in 1966.
In addition, Ryabov was co-chairman of intergovernmental commissions with North Korea, Vietnam, Laos and Kampuchea.
In March 1985, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Konstantin Chernenko died, and Mikhail Gorbachev was elected instead. In September 1985, Nikolai Ryzhkov, a former subordinate of Ryabov, was appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. He offered Ryabov, in addition to the others, to supervise the metallurgical complex. Both Gorbachev, Ryzhkov, and Ryabov enjoyed the support of Yuri Andropov when he was General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Despite this, over time, relations between Ryabov and Ryzhkov began to deteriorate, which, according to Ryabov, was the reason for his resignation from the post of deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers.
In June 1986, Yakov Ryabov was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR to France. As noted above, Ryabov could establish contacts in France while working in the Sverdlovsk Region on the basis of cooperation with the French company CIFAL in the field of nuclear energy. One of the main directions of Ryabov's work in France was to end the arms race. It is interesting that the end of the arms race was taken up by a man who had previously been primarily concerned with the production and sale of these weapons. It should be noted that Academician Yevgeny Velikhov, an acquaintance of Ryabov's, played an active role in ending the arms race.
In March 1987, a spy scandal erupted in France. 7 Frenchmen were arrested on suspicion of spying on the USSR (stealing the technological secrets of the French system for launching satellites into space "Ariane"). Ryabov called it a provocation designed to drive a wedge into Soviet-French relations. Ultimately, the case was closed for lack of corpus delicti.
In October 1987, at a plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Ryabov condemned the speech of Boris Yeltsin, in which he criticized the leader of the "conservatives" Yegor Ligachev. Thus, Ryabov demonstrated his loyalty to Mikhail Gorbachev, despite the fact that Ryabov was “exiled” to France.
In March 1990, Yakov Ryabov in Paris received an encrypted message from Moscow, where Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze praised Ryabov's activities and announced that a proposal had been made for Ryabov to resign. According to Ryabov, the aggressive entourage of Mikhail Gorbachev and the democratic platform of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR were involved in this.
In a personal meeting, Mikhail Gorbachev said that he did not yet have concrete proposals for Ryabov's employment, and Ryabov offered to give him a personal pension as deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, a retired of union significance. Gorbachev agreed.
Yakov Ryabov left France in May 1990.
In his memoirs, Yakov Ryabov wrote that in the second half of 1990 he began to actively help the Ural defense industry in foreign economic activity. An active initiator of this was Ryabov's old friend from Nizhny Tagil, NI Danilov, who later became the first deputy chairman of the government of the Sverdlovsk region.
Until 1989 Danilov Nikolai Igorevich was the first deputy chairman of the Nizhny Tagil city executive committee. In 1989 , the Nizhniy Tagil City Executive Committee began to cooperate with the state-cooperative concern "AST", which was created with the active participation of high-ranking leaders of the military-industrial complex of the USSR. AST offered to sell Nizhny Tagil scrap metal and woodworking waste on the external market. In the same 1989, the AST concern bought a batch of tanks from the Nizhny Tagil Uralvagonzavod with the intention of selling them abroad, but in 1990 a scandal broke out in this regard, which severely crippled the successful concern and put an end to the careers of a number of leaders of the military-industrial complex. Nikolai Danilov and Yakov Ryabov did not appear in the media in connection with this scandal, although, judging by the nature of Danilov's activities and Ryabov's connections in the military-industrial complex, the likelihood that they could participate in the activities of the AST concern in Nizhny Tagil is quite high. The official biography of Nikolai Danilov did not say what he did from 1989 to 1991.
In 1991 (before the putsch), the Ministry of Defense Industries decided to create a trade and industrial exchange for defense industries. The initiator of the creation of the exchange, Minister of Communications Industry Pervyshin Erlen Karikovich offered Ryabov to head it, but he refused.
In February 1992, Yakov Ryabov became the head of the Association for Assistance to the Development of the Ural Region. Ryabov's election was initiated by his old friend Yuri Vasilievich Torshilov (formerly an assistant to the chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers A. N. Kosygin for metallurgy), who became the executive director of the Association. Melent'ev Vladimir Serafimovich and Vorotnikov Valery Pavlovich (retired major general of the KGB) became the vice-presidents of the Association. The Association was officially registered on April 2, 1992. In 2001, instead of the Association, the Regional Public Organization "Ural Community" was registered, one of the founders of which was Yakov Ryabov, and Vladimir Melentyev became its president.
Vladimir Melentiev worked in the Komsomol apparatus in the city of Nizhny Tagil in the 1970s, and in the Komsomol Central Committee in the 1980s. In 1987-1988 , Vladimir Melentiev was the Deputy General Director of the All-Union Association "Vneshtorgizdat", and in 1988 he headed the Soviet-German joint venture "Burda Moden" (publishing magazines for women).
The elder brother of Vladimir Melentiev was Melentyev Yuri Serafimovich, who from 1974 to 1990headed the Ministry of Culture of the RSFSR. N. Mitrokhin in the book “Russian Party. The movement of Russian nationalists in the USSR. 1953-1985" mentions Yuri Melentiev among the supporters of the "Russian party" of the creative intelligentsia of the USSR. The "Russian Party" can be characterized as a Slavophil trend with an Orthodox-monarchical bias, which was in conflict with a "liberal" group of creative intelligentsia with a predominantly Jewish influence. The "Russian Party" in spirit was close to the "moderately conservative" clan of the military-industrial complex, to which, presumably, Yakov Ryabov belonged.
In August 1992, the "Association for the Development of the Ural Region" (Yakov Ryabov), the All-Russian Association for International Cultural and Humanitarian Relations (Yuri Melentyev) and the Federation of UNESCO Clubs of Russia established a public organization "International Demidov Fund" in Nizhny Tagil. It was stated that the "Demidov movement" was called upon to help the revival of Russia as a powerful and authoritative state, and the Demidov dynasty of industrialists, being part of the Russian elite, was remembered as generous and enlightened patrons and benefactors. The first co-chairs of the Foundation were Yakov Ryabov, Yuri Melentyev and Chairman of the Presidium of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Gennady Mesyats.
It should be noted that, in addition to Yakov Ryabov and Vladimir Melentiev, there was one more person who was a member of the founders of both the Ural Community Association and the International Demidov Fund - retired KGB Lieutenant Colonel Konstantin Mikhailovich Galkin. In the 1990s, Konstantin Galkin worked in the security service of the Most Group, Vladimir Gusinsky, under the leadership of the aforementioned KGB Major General (retired) Valery Vorotnikov.
In 1999, Konstantin Galkin became the head of Rusbelmash Trade and Exhibition Center LLC in Moscow, which sold special equipment for a number of machine-building enterprises, including those from the Sverdlovsk region: Uralvagonzavod and Kalinin Machine-Building Plant. Both of these plants are classified as enterprises of the military-industrial complex. The founder of Rusbelmash was a company from Yekaterinburg - CJSC Trade and Exhibition Center Sredny Ural, which in turn was a subsidiary of OJSC Torgmash (Yekaterinburg plant of commercial engineering). At that time, JSC Torgmash was a subsidiary of JSC Industrial Company Concern Antey (now Concern PVO Almaz-Antey), which united a number of defense industry enterprises throughout Russia.
In 2002, as the successor to Rusbelmash, Galkin established in Moscow the Bolshoi Ural Trade and Finance Company LLC. The founders of the Bolshoi Ural company, in addition to Galkin and his deputy (Pochuev Yevgeny Maksimovich), were the Ural community organization and the International Demidov Fund. The Bolshoi Ural company was authorized by the government of the Sverdlovsk region to supply industrial products from the Moscow region for the needs of energy, construction, mechanical engineering and agriculture enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region. Mainly, the Bolshoi Ural company supplied cable products to the Podolskkabel plant, in whose management Aleksey Maksimovich Pochuev worked - presumably the brother of Evgeny Pochuev (Konstantin Galkin's partner in the Bolshoi Ural company).
In the 1990s, Yakov Ryabov became an advisor to the president of the French group of firms "Centrocommers International", which included the aforementioned firm "CIFAL".
In 1999, Yakov Ryabov ran for deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation from the electoral association "Party of Pensioners", leading the three federal candidates. He was the co-chairman of the "Party of Pensioners". Information was published that Ryabov was only the nominal leader of the party, attracted by real leaders to increase the attractiveness of the list of candidates from the party. The party list received only 1.95% of the vote, and Yakov Ryabov failed to become a deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation. When in 2001 the Party of Pensioners was transformed into the Russian Party of Pensioners, Yakov Ryabov did not enter the governing bodies of the new party.
According to information for 2013, Yakov Ryabov is the honorary president of the Ural community organization, co-chairman of the International Demidov Fund, a full member of the Engineering Academy of Russia.
In March 2018, Yakov Ryabov, an honorary resident of the Sverdlovsk region, on his 90th birthday, received a distinction "For services to the Sverdlovsk region" II degree. However, Ryabov had not lived in the Sverdlovsk Region for a long time and he was awarded the insignia in Moscow.
In April 2018, Yakov Ryabov died.
Date of update: 2019